Tuesday, January 31, 2012

Article on Global Warming

GLOBAL WARMING

Global warming is the unusually rapid increase in Earth’s average surface temperature over the past century primarily due to the greenhouse gases released as people burn fossil fuels. The global average surface temperature rose 0.6 to 0.9 degrees Celsius (1.1 to 1.6° F) between 1906 and 2005, and the rate of temperature increase has nearly doubled in the last 50 years. Temperature are certain to go up further.

Over the last three decades of the 20th century, gross domestic product per capita and population growth were the main drivers of increases in greenhouse gas emissions.CO2 emissions are continuing to rise due to the burning of fossil fuels and land-use change.Emissions can be attributed to different regions. The two figures opposite show annual greenhouse gas emissions for the year 2005, including land-use change. Attribution of emissions due to land-use change is a controversial issue.
Emissions scenarios, estimates of changes in future emission levels of greenhouse gases, have been projected that depend upon uncertain economic, sociological, technological, and natural developments. In most scenarios, emissions continue to rise over the century, while in a few, emissions are reduced.. Fossil fuel reserves are abundant, and will not limit carbon emissions in the 21st century.Emission scenarios, combined with modelling of the carbon cycle, have been used to produce estimates of how atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases might change in the future. Using the six IPCC SRES "marker" scenarios, models suggest that by the year 2100, the atmospheric concentration of CO2 could range between 541 and 970 ppm. This is an increase of 90–250% above the concentration in the year 1750.
The popular media and the public often confuse global warming with ozone depletion, i.e., the destruction of stratospheric ozone by chlorofluorocarbons. Although there are a few areas of linkage, the relationship between the two is not strong. Reduced stratospheric ozone has had a slight cooling influence on surface temperatures, while increased tropospheric ozonehas had a somewhat larger warming effect.

Monday, January 30, 2012

EASSY ON UNEMLOYMENT IN INDIA

UNEMPLOYMENT IN INDIA


The problem of unemployment is the most serious problem facing our country. A large number of educated and uneducated people loiter about in search of some job. They are willing to work but they cannot get it. There is unemployment in cities, towns and even in villages.
The problem of unemployment means the problem of providing work to those who are willing to work. A large number of educated and uneducated people, who are capable of work and are also willing to do it, roam here and there without any job. So the problem has assumed an acute form.
There is a large number of people who are either partly employed or wholly unemployed. The lives of such people, as well as of their families, are extremely miserable. India cannot claim to be a welfare state so long as this problem remains unsolved. Before discussing the ways and means of solving this problem, let us first examine the causes which have created it.
It is a well known fact that ours is a thickly populated country. The population is increasing by leaps and bounds. But jobs and gainful avenues cannot be created in the same proportion. So, naturally, a large section of the people is left unemployed. Moreover, our education system is also responsible for this problem. The problem of educated unemployment is peculiar to India. India is only country in the world where even highly educated persons fail to to get employment. Every year thousands and thousands of graduates pass out of schools and colleges. They are unfit for any work, except office work. All of them cannot be absorbed in services. This increases employment.
The problem of unemployment is mainly an economic one. It is essential, therefore, that the economic policy of the country be overhauled. In our country, labor is available in abundance. We should provide avenues for employment for them through cottage and small-scale industries. besides this, stress must be laid on family planning. Every effort must be made to check the rapid rise in population. This will help a great deal in the solution of this problem.
More stress should be laid on technical and vocational education. The present bookish education which produces clerks alone should be restricted. When people get technical and vocational education, they will not hanker after services on completing their education, they will come out well prepared to stand on their own legs. The problem will be half-solved, if this suggestion is implemented.
Our joint-family system is gradually breaking down. This may be a good social change from certain points of view, but front the point of view of unemployment it is harmful. When we live jointly, some family members get employed in family professions. One who gets a job, supports others who may not be equally fortunate. We should not be hasty in breaking down this system.
Our country cannot advance economically, politically, or socially, unless this problem is solved. Many a social evil is spread through the unemployed. Frustration, drug-addiction, even suicides are, by and large, the evil results of unemployment. Unrest and disorder increase in society. It is, therefore, the duty of the Government to make every possible effort to solve this problem. However, we may stress again that the problem cannot be solved till the population explosion is not checked. The two are closely inter-linked, and the people must be made to realize this through and adequate process of social education. We are happy to note that the government has come out with a plan to provide employment to educated young men during the ninth plan period.

Friday, January 27, 2012

Short Eassy -Basant Panchmi

Goddess Saraswati

Magh Sud 5 (5th day of the bright fortnight of the lunar month of Magh – falls usually in the month of  January or February) is the day of Vasant Panchami and is also celebrated as Shree Panchami or Saraswati Puja in West Bengal and few other parts of Orissa.

Saraswati is traditionally depicted with a serene and calm expression with a majestic air. She is seated on a white lotus in Padmasana, adorned by a pure white silk sari, has a book in her lower left hand, her lower right hand showing the chinmudra, Aksharamala in her right upper hand, and Amrithakalasam in her left upper hand. Both eyes are full of compassion. The vehicle assigned to each of the three goddesses also symbolically represent their special powers.

The image of Goddess Saraswati depicts her sitting on a vehicle that symbolizes her supreme power. The white swan of Saraswati symbolizes Satwa Guna (purity and discrimination), the lotus of Lakshmi the Rajas Guna and the tiger of Durga the Tamas Guna. Saraswati is shown possessing four hands and plays "Veena", an Indian string musical instrument.

Goddess Saraswati is the consort of Lord Brahma (Lord of Creation) and is the goddess of wisdom and learning. Saraswati is the one who gives the essence (sara) of our own self (swa). She is considered as the personification of all knowledge - arts, sciences, crafts and other skills. She has a beautiful and elegant presence, is pure white in colour, clad in a white sari, seated on a white lotus, representing purity and brilliance. She has four hands representing four aspects of human personality in learning: mind, intellect, alertness and ego. She has the sacred scriptures in one hand and a lotus (a symbol of true knowledge) in the second. With her other two hands she plays the music of love and life on the veena.
She is dressed in white (sign of purity) and rides on a white goose (swan). The swan is known for its peculiar characteristic of being capable of separating water from milk, indicating that we should possess discrimination in separating the bad from the good. The seat being a lotus or peacock implies that the teacher is well-established in the subjective experience of truth. When sitting on a peacock she reminds us that wisdom suppresses ego

On this day Goddess Saraswati is worshipped in various names and fames - the Goddess of Learning, the deity of Gayatri, the fountain of fine arts and science, and the symbol of supreme vedantic knowledge.


Festival of flying kites

On the day of flying kites, together with worshiping, competition of flying kites is also organised. In this festival national and international competitors participate. The tradition of flying kites was started from China. In this festival of flying kites, we get an opportunity to see new and versatile kites.

Wednesday, January 25, 2012

asmrutvachanam

अमृतवचनं


यथा कुटुम्ब विषये अस्माकं त्यगभाव: न शक्य:  अपितु संयर्णं एव , तथेव राष्ट्रस्य विषये अपि त्याग: न , पूर्ण  सर्वस्व समर्पणम्  स्यात् समर्पणं अस्य त्याग:  इति  कथन  अहं  कारस्य  कारणं  भवति अस्माकं शक्ति: समय:  धनं  चिन्तनं  परिश्रम  इत्यापिनि  एष्वर्याणि  राष्ट्रस्य न नेवेदयांश्चेत , न समर्प्यां: चेत्  वयं  कर्तव्यच्युता भवेम  वा  चक्रा: अतः  क्रमश: एतानि  एष्वर्याणि राष्ट्रस्य अपर्णियानि   , तस्या दिशि प्रयत्न: करणीया वा च 
नो चेत प्राणिनां अस्माकं  च  कः  भेद:

Tuesday, January 24, 2012

Lotus Temple

Lotus Temple

Located in kalkaji in the south of delhi, it is lotus shaped and has rightly been given the name.
It is made of marble, cement, dolomite and sand. It is open to all faiths and is an ideal place  for meditation and obtaining peace and tranquility.
It is a very recent architectural marvel of Bahai faith. The bahai faith is the youngest of the world’s  independent religions. Its founder baha’u’llah(1817-1892) is regarded by Baha is as the most recent in the line of messengers of god that stretches back beyond recorded time and that includes Abrahum , Moses,  Buddha, Zoroster, Christ and Muhammad. The cental theme of Baha’u’llah’s is that humanity is one single race and that the day has come for its unification in one global society. God , Baha’u’llah said, has set in motion historical  forces that breaking down traditional barriers of race, class, creed, and nation and that will, in time, give birth to a universal civilization. The principal challenge facing the peoples of the earth is to accept the fact of their oneness and to assist the processes of unification.
The Grand Structure
Fariborz Sahaba, Canadian architect of Iranian origin, spent 10 years in designing and project management, and with the help of a team of about 800 enginners, technicians, artisans and workers brought to realization one of the most complicated constructions in the world. The structure of the house is composed of three ranks of nine petals; each springing from a podium elevating the building  above the surrounding plain. The first two ranks curve inward, embracing the inner  dome; the third layer  curves outward to form canopies over the nine entrances. The  petals, constructed of reinforced  white conrete cast in place, are clad in white marble panels, performed to surface profiles and patterns related to the geometry. Nine arches that provide the main support for the superstructure ring the central hall. Nine reflecting pools surround the building on the outside, their form suggesting the green leaves of the lotus flower. Translating the geometry of the design, in which there are virtually no straight lines, into the actual structure presented particular challenges in designing and erecting the framework. Not only was it difficult to align, so as to produce accurately the complex double-curved surfaces and their intersections, but also the closeness of the petals  severely restricted  workspace. Nevertheless the task was carried out entirely by the local laborers. Thanks to each one who contributed in its construction. To avoid construction joints, petals were concreted in a countinous operation for approximately 48 hours. Concrete was carried up the staging by women bearing 50-pound loads in basket balanced on their heads.

Articles

As of 2003 it had been featured in television programmes in India, Russia and China. The Baha'i World Centre Library has archived more than 500 publications which have carried information on the Temple in the form of articles, interviews with the Architect and write-ups extolling the structure.[1]
§                    In France, the magazine "Actualite des Religions" published a four-page article on the Lotus Temple in the fall of 2000 in a special edition called "Les religions et leurs chef-d'œuvres" (Religions and Their Masterpieces)

Tourism

Since its inauguration to public worship in December 1986, the Bahá'í House of Worship in Delhi has, as of late 2002, attracted more than 50 million visitors, making it one of the most visited buildings in the world.[10] Its numbers of visitors during those years surpassed those of theEiffel Tower and the Taj Mahal. On Hindu holy days, it has drawn as many as 150,000 people; it welcomes four million visitors each year (about 13,000 every day or 9 every minute).
This House of Worship is generally referred to as the "Lotus Temple". In India, during the Hindu festival Durga Puja, several times a replica of the Lotus Temple has been made as a pandal, a temporary structure set up to venerate the goddess Durga.[11] In Sikkim a permanent replica is of the Hindu Legship Mandir, dedicated to Shiva

Monday, January 23, 2012

Tulsi Vivah

Tulsi Vivah


Tulsi Vivah is the ceremonial marriage of the Tulsi plant (holy basil) to the Hindugod Vishnu or his Avatar Krishna. This ceremony can be performed any time between Prabodhini Ekadashi - the eleventh lunar day of the bright fortnight of theHindu month Kartik to the full moon of the month (Kartik Poornima) but usually it is performed on the eleventh or the twelfth lunar day. The day varies from region to region. The Tulsi wedding signifies the end of the monsoon and the beginning of the Hindu wedding season.



Tulsi Vivah or Marriage: 

 This is perhaps the most sentimental but not the least important festival which falls on the 11th day of the bright half of Kartik.  This story from padma Puram revolves round Tulsi, the plant Ocimum Sanctum which in her former birth was Vrinda, the daughter of a giant named Nemi, and the faithful wife of demon Jalandhar. Being born in water Jalandhar claims sovereignty over the ocean and demands the 14 treasures churned out of the ocean in Vishnu's second incarnation.  He declares war and becomes a cause of danger to the gods. More so because of a boon that he would be free drom death till his wife Vrinda was chaste.  As a last resort to kill Jalandhar, Vishnu beguiles Vrinda by assuming her husband's form. Vrinda in her wrath cruses and turns Lord Vishnu into a Black stone (Salagram) for his deceit.  Vishnu too retaliates but in admiration of her impeachable chastity and piety, he transfers her into the sacred Tulsi plant and promises to marry her annually on this day of Kartik Poonam.




Performing Tusli Vivah Festival-A Tulsi Pooja

Tulsi Vivah, is observed at dusk in homes. The place is cleaned up and rangolis are drawn in front of Tulsi Vrindavan. Tulsi plant, being treated as the bride is smeared with turmeric and vermilion. Small bangles are hang on the tender branches. A small cloth is wound around the plant. A Shaligrama is placed next to the Tulsi as the symbol of Mahavishnu, the groom. A priest is summoned and all rites, involved in a formal wedding are conducted. 

In some places, a cloth is held in front of the plant, which acts like a screen, while mantras are chanted. At the end of the mantra recitation, the cloth is removed as a mark of culmination of the wedding.

The performance of this pooja bestows prosperity, a cordial relationship between partners and all other material boons. When done with proper understanding of its essence, it bestows self realisation, the end of all spiritual pursuits.

Saturday, January 21, 2012

Eassy of Republic Day of India

THE REPUBLIC DAY OF INDIA

India gained independence on 15 August 1947, after which the process of preparing a constitution was started. The Constitution was passed on 26 November 1949 in the Constituent Assembly. It was adopted on 26 January 1950 with a democratic government system, when the country became a republic in true sense. 26 January was selected, because it was this day in 1930 when the Declaration of Indian Independence was passed.

In the life of every nation there are certain days which are considered as red-letter days. The Republic Day celebration held on 26th January every year in our country is one of those days. It is perhaps the most important day of our country. It marks the birth of our nation as a republic. Therefore this day is celebrated all over the country with great pomp and show.
From then on till the dawn of independence on Aug. 1947, the nation celebrated 26th Jan. as Independence Day. Later, when India wanted a day to mark its official birth 26th January, the independence day of the pre-independence days was chosen. On this day, 26th Jan. 1950 Indian constitution came into force and India was proclaimed to be a sovereign, democratic and a republic,
The ceremony begins in the morning of 26th January with the laying of a wreath at the Amar Jawan Jyothi at the India Gate by the Prime Minister, as a mark of gratitude to the martyrs who have laid down their lives for the country. At exactly 8.00 a.m. the president reaches the Rajpath along with the Chief Guest. They are welcomed by the Prime Minister and the defence Minister.
On reaching the specially erected podium, the president unfurls the national flag. The Republic day parade begins soon after this. The march is led by heroes of war, the members of armed forces who have received gallantry awards followed by the young boys and girls who have won National Bravery Awards for that year.
Soldiers from different wings of the armed forces, units of paramilitary and police forces march to the tune of the military band. The President takes the salute. A colourful %-past by helicopters and aeroplanes makes the ceremony most spectacular. Folk dances by cultural troupes and various performances are put up by school children to keep the audience spellbound.
The tableaux of states depicting the cultural wonders of the states follow the school children. The procession lasts for several hours and finally ends up at Red Fort. Hundreds of people from far off places come to watch the charming show of military might and national glory.
In the evening, the Raisina Hill, where the Rashtrapathi Bhavan is situated is illuminated, presenting a glittering sight. The Republic Day celebrations last three days and come to an end on the evening of 28th January with the Beating of the Retreat ceremony. It is an impressive ceremony put up by our armed forces. Grand Republic day celebrations are also organised in various state capitals, district headquarters and at the Block and Panchayat levels which are attended by the general public.

Friday, January 20, 2012

Shivaji's Life

Shivaji was born of a Maratha family in 1627 A.D. His father was a chief of the kingdom of Bijapur. Though he was high up, he was not allowed to control any fort. In his early youth, Shivaji inspired the local peasant youths around Poona to follow him in his idealistic pursuits.

Shivaji drew strength from the guidance of his guru, Guru Ramdas who together with mata Jijabai in his young life, made him a national hero.

Shivaji's  father Shahaji Bhosale served alongside Malik Ambar, who defended the Deccan region (First to be done By any Maratha In The Deccan Region) against the Mughals.He always tried to free their Kingdom From The Sultanate Of Bijapur as well as wanted to throw out the mughal rule in India and Establish a Swaraj Empire). His mother Jijabai,a pious and far sighted lady was the daughter of Lakhujirao Jadhav of Sindkhed.She is regarded to be The master or the guru Of Shivaji's Bravery By their court poet,paramanand. During the period of Shivaji's birth, the power in Deccan was shared by three Islamic sultanates – Bijapur, Ahmednagar, and Golconda. Shahaji kept changing his loyalty between the Nizamshahi of Ahmadnagar, Adil Shah of Bijapur and the Mughals, but always kept his ''jagir (fiefdom) at Pune and his small army with him.He tried to establish independent kingdom twice.But he had to surrender before onslaught of mughals in 1636.By a treaty shahji was forced to leave maratha country and took up service with adilshah in deep south.The region around poona was devastated due to continous warfare, hence to restore peace and prosperity Jijabai remained behind .Shivaji being of minor age also stayed with her.For their upkeep shahji kept a trusted and experienced men with them .He was Dadaji Kondadev(a trusted master of state-craft), Dadaji also taught the art of swordsmanship to Shivaji, and especially the effective use of lance, the characteristic Maratha weapon. In a short time, Shivaji became a skilled swordsman, strategist and an accomplished horseman.

Shivaji with Jijamata
Shivaji was extremely devoted to his mother Jijabai, who was deeply religious. This religious environment had a profound influence on Shivaji, and he carefully studied the two great Hindu epics, Ramayana andMahabharata. The morality and spiritual messages of the epics made a great impression on him. Throughout his life he was deeply interested in religious teachings, and sought the company of Hindu andSufi (an esoteric Muslim sect) saints throughout his life.[15]
Shivaji drew his earliest trusted comrades and a large number of his soldiers from the Maval region, including Yesaji Kank, Suryaji kakade,Baji Pasalkar, Baji Prabhu Deshpande and Tanaji Malusare. In the company of his Maval comrades, a young Shivaji wandered over the hills and forests of the Sahyadri range, hardening himself and acquiring first-hand knowledge of the land. By 1639, he commanded a hardy and loyal band of officers and soldiers.[15]
At the age of 12, Shivaji was taken to Banglore where he was further formally trained alongwith elder brother Sambhaji and stepbrother Ekoji. At age of 14, he returned to Pune with a rajmudra (sovereign seal) and council of minister.

Thursday, January 19, 2012

Eassy of Red Fort

Red Fort in Delhi

 

 

Lal Quila also called the Red Fort is one of the most important monuments of India. It stands on the bank of river Yamuna. The whole structure is made of Red stone. The fort was built by Shahjahan - the Mughal King who also built the famous Taj Mahal - in 1648. Shahjahan called it the Uru-Muhalla. Shahjahan shifted his capital from Agra to Delhi and Red Fort was the new capital. Lal Quila stands at the eastern side of Shahjahanabad and the very name of "Lal Quila" comes from the huge wall that encloses the whole structure. The wall is 2.5 km long and the height varies from 16 meters on the river side to 33 meters towards the city.One of the special attraction of the fort is the huge wall that encompasses the whole structure. The walls have two entrances, one at the delhi gate and the other at the Lahore gate. Lahore Gate is the main entrance point of the fort, leading to Chatta Chowk. It is a coveres bazaar street where merchnats sold their goods to the nobles of the court.

Red Fort today

The Red Fort is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Old Delhi, attracting thousands of visitors every year. The fort is also the site from which the Prime Minister of India addresses the nation on 15 August, the day India achieved independence from the British. It also happens to be the largest monument in Old Delhi.
At one point in time, more than 3,000 people lived within the premises of the Delhi Fort complex. But after the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857, the fort was captured by Britain and the residential palaces destroyed. It was made the headquarters of the British Indian Army. Immediately after the mutiny,Bahadur Shah Zafar was tried at the Red Fort. It was also here in November 1945, that the most famous courts-martial of three officers of the Indian National Army were held. Even after India gained independence in 1947, the Indian Army continued its control over the fort. In December 2003, the Indian Army handed the fort over to the Indian tourist authorities.
Today, a sound and light show describing Mughal history is a tourist attraction in the evenings. The general condition of the major architectural features is mixed. None of the water features, which are extensive, contain water. Some of the buildings are in fairly good condition and have their decorative elements undisturbed. In others, the marble inlay flowers have been removed by looters and vandals. The tea house, though not in its historical state, is a functioning restaurant. The mosque and hamam are closed to the public, though one can catch peeks through the glass windows or marble lattice work. Walkways are left mostly in a crumbling state. Public toilets are available at the entrance and inside the park, but some are quite unsanitary.
The entrance through the Lahore Gate leads to a retail mall with jewellery and crafts stores. There is a museum of "blood paintings" depicting young Indian martyrs of the 20th century along with the story of their martyrdom. There is also an archaeological museum and an Indian war memorial museum.
The fort was the site of a December 2000 attack by terrorist group Lashkar-e-Toiba which killed two soldiers and one civilian in what was described in the media as an attempt to derail the India-Pakistan peace process in Kashmir

Wednesday, January 18, 2012

eassy of Delhi Nagar

                                                        भारतस्य  राजधानी 
 भारतस्य  राष्ट्रिया राजधानी देहली इति ख्याता अस्या: प्राचीनतम नाम इन्द्रप्रस्थं  इति आसीत्  देहली मधेय सर्वकारस्य केन्द्रस्य शासनस्य अनेके कार्यालया: तिष्ठन्ति तत्र  बहुभूमिकानि भवनानि  सत्यमेव दर्शनीयानि  एषु  भवनेषु लोकसभा -भवनम्, राज्यसभा -भवनम्, राष्ट्रपतिनिवासश्च  दर्शनीयानि  सन्ति  भारतस्य प्रधानमन्त्री अन्ये च केन्द्रीय -मन्त्रिण: अपि  अस्मिन् नगरे वसन्ति  देहली प्रदेशस्य अधुना पृथक् विधानसभा  अपि निर्वाचिता वर्तते 
देहली नगर मध्ये  दर्शनीय स्थानेषु सर्वोच  न्यायालय :, अद्भुतालय:, जन्तुंग्रहं , वयुयान -पत्तनं वर्तते अद्भुतालये संग्रालये वा जनानां प्रदर्शनार्थ विविधानां दर्शनीय वास्तूनां संग्रह : विद्यते 
देहली नगरे विश्वविद्यालय: जवाहर् लाल नेहरू -विद्यालय : केन्द्रीय संस्कृत - विद्यापीठ च सन्ति 
अधुना  संसारे  या प्रगति:  दृश्यते तस्या: यद् किञ्चित्  दिग्दर्शनं देहली नगरे एव  भवति   

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