Thursday, July 12, 2007

THE GREAT GATSBY

THE GREAT GATSBY

GATSBY'S CHARACTER

GATSBY WAS INTRODUCED IN THIS STORY AS A NEW ACQUAINTED OF NICK WHO OFFERED HIM TO COME WITH HIM FOR A RIDE IN HIS HYDROPLANE. GATSBY WANTED TO BE FRIENDLY WITH ALL WHO LIVED AROUND HIM; HENCE A MAN WAS SENT TO INVITE NICK CARRAWAY. GATSBY'S NATURE WAS NOT UNDERSTOOD BY ANYONE.HE WAS AN ELEGANT PERSONALITY A ROUGH YOUNG MAN OF THIRTY-TWO YEARS OF AGE.

NICK HEARD MUCH ABOUT GATSBY FROM THE GUESTS INVITED IN THE PARTY. HE COULD MAKE OUT THAT THIS MAN MUST HAVE HAD A DUBIOUS PAST. THE PEOPLE (ALL HIS FRIENDS) COMMENTED ON HIS PERSONALITY IN A DOUBTFUL MANNER, AS SOME WERE OF THE OPINON THAT GATSBY HAD KILLED SOMEONE IN THE PAST, SOME OTHERS SAID THAT HE WAS A RUNAWAY DACOIT, A FUGITIVE FROM LAW ETC. NEVERTHELESS HE ENTERTAINS EXCELLENT TASTE & HAD A KNACK OF SATISFYING EVERYONE.

AS GATSBY STOOD, WATCHING HIS GUESTS IN HIS PARTY, WEARING WHITE FLANNELS, WITH WELL GROOMED HAIR AND PERSON, ONE COULD NOT MAKE OUT THAT GATSBY WAS A SINISTER PERSON. THE WAY WHE BUTLER ADDRESSED HIM AND CALLED HIM TO ATTEND CALLS FROM OUTSIDE THE U.S.A.,LEAD US TO BEKLIEVE THAT HE WAS A GREAT MAN.

NICK TALKED TO GATSBY ON SEVERAL OCCASIONS AND FOUND THAT HE WAS A PERSON OF UNDEFINED CONSEQUENCES. HE ALSO KNEW ABOUT THE BIZARRE ACCUSATIONS THAT FLAVOURED THE CONVERSATION IN HIS HALLS. HE TOLD NICK THAT HE WAS EDUCATED IN OXFORD. HE BELONGED TO MIDDLE WEST SAN FRANCISSO. HE INHERITED A GOOD DEAL OF MONEY FROM HIS ANCESTRS. HE LIVED LIKE A KING IN MANY PLACES IN EUROPE AND THAT HE BOUGHT HIS CLOTHES FROM ENGLAND.

HUNTING BIG GAME, COLLECTION OF PRECIOUS STONES ESPECIALLY RUBIES WAS HIS PASSION. HE WORKED IN THE WAR AS A MAJOR AND THE ALLIED GOVERNMENT GAVE HIM DECORATION. HIS SPLENDID CAR WAS ALSO A PRESENT GIVEN BECAUSE HE WAS VALIANT SOLDIER.

ACCORDING TO MR. WOLSHIEMM, GATSBY WAS AN INTELLIGENT MAN WHO UNDERSTOOD THE WAYS OF THE WORLD BETTER THEN ANYBODY ELSE.

HE OWED HIS RICHES TO HIS MENTOR DAN CODY.HE RESPECTED HIM EVER AFTER. GATSBY WAS EXTREMELY FOND OF DAISY AND WAS QUIET TROUBLED WHEN HE KNEW THAT SHE WAS MARRIED, BUT WHENEVER A CHANCE CAME HIS WAY, HE AVAILED IT. THEY BECAME VERY CLOSE WITH NICK'S HELP. GATSBY'S MEANINGLESS INFATUATION FOR DAISY MADE HIM MISERABLE. HE LIVED A LIFE OF A WATER BUBBLE, WHICH BECAME BIGGER AND BIGGER ONLY TO BURST IN THE END.

GATSBY LIVED A LIFE A RECKLESSNESS. IN THE SAME MANNER GATSBY DIED AND NOBODY CARED NOR DID ANYONE COME FOR HIS FUNERAL. EVENTHOUGH HIS SO CALLED FRIENDS ENJOYED HIS HOSPITALITY TO THE HEART'S CORE.

GATSBY CAME UP IN HIS LIFE BECAUSE OF CODY AND ENJOYED HIMSELF WITH WHATEVER MONEY COULD BUY. HE ENJOYED THE COMPANIONSHIP OF NOT ONLY DAISY BUT ALSO MANY A SOCIETY WOMAN. HE WAS ALSO WARM-HEARTED HOSPITABLE. HE WOULD HAVE MADE A BETTER HUSBAND TO DAISY THAN TOM BUCHANAN.



A SHORT NOTE ON GATSBY'S HOUSE

GATSBY HAD A PALATIAL HOUSE. A BREWER HAD BUILT IT A DECADE AGO IN THE PERIOD OF CRAZE. HIS GARDEN IS ENCHANTING FILLED WITH SPARKLING ODOUR OF JONQUILS AND THE FROTHY FRAGRANCE OF HAWTHORN, PLUM BLOSSOMS AND THE PALE GOLD ODOUR OF KISS-ME-AT-THE-GATE. THE TREE IN THE YARD NESTLED MANY A BIRD OF FOREIGN ORIGIN. HIS LAWNS ARE VERDANT, WELL MOWED AND PLUSH.

THERE ARE THREE MARIE ANTOINETTE MUSIC ROOMS AND RESTORATION SALOONS. HE HAD AN ENORMOUS MERTON COLLEGE LIBRARY. A WING OF GUEST BEDROOM WAS SWATHED IN ROSE AND LAVENDER SILKS AND VIVD WITH NEW FLOWERS. A SET OF POOLROOMS AND DRESSING ROOMS FOLLOWED.

GATSBY'S OWN BEDROOM, HIS BATH AND AN ADAM'S STUDY ROOM WERE EXQUISITILY FURNISHED. HIS SPECIAL GUESTS WERE ENTERTAINED WITH CHARTREUSE FROM A CUPBOARD. HIS DRESSER WAS EMBEDDED WITH A SET OF PURE DULL GOLD.

GATSBY HAD TWO BULKY PATENT CABINETS, WHICH HELD HIS SUITS AND DRESSING GOWNS AND EXPENSIVE TIES, ALL BOUGHT FROM ENGLAND.

THERE WERE EXTENSIVE SWEEPS OF LAWNS SURROUNDING HIS BUNGALOW, THE SWIMMING POOL AND THE HYDROPLAN AND THE MID-SUMMER FLOWERS.

ULTIMATELY THE SEA FOR THE BAY ITSELF MAKES A NATURAL BEAUTY SPOT AROUND HIS SPRAWLING GREEN LAWNS.


DAN CODY’S CHARACTER




DAN CODY WAS A FIFTEEN YEAR OLD MAN FROM NEVEDA, SILVER FIELDS OF YOUKON. HE KNEW MUCH ABOUT THE METALLIC PRODUCTS. THE TRANSACTIONS IN MONTANA COPPER KNEW MUCH ABOUT THE METALLIC PRODUCTS. THE TRANSACTIONS IN MONTANA COPPER MADE HIM A MAILLIONAIRE, FOUND HIM PHYSICALLY ROBUST BUT SOFT MINDED. MANY WOMEN WERE AFTER HIM FOR HIS MONEY. HE MARRIED ELLA KAYE , A JOURNALIST AND GREW VERY FOND OF HER AND ON HER ADVICE HE TOOK TO THE SEAS ON BUSINESS.

IN ONE OF HIS EXPEDITIONS HE FOUND THE YOUNG GATZ (GATSBY) . HIS GLAMAROUS APPEARANCE TOOK HOLD OF DAN CODY. HEWAS QUICK IN WIT AND EXTRAVAGANTLY AMBITIOUS. HE WAS APPOINTED TO WORK ON COD’S YACHT. HE WAS THE STEWARD, SKIPPER, SECRETARY AND EVEN TAILOR FOR DAN CODY.DAN CODY STARTED TO TRUST YOUNG GATZ. DAN CODY DRANK A LOT AND LEFT ALL HIS RESPONSIBILITIES TO GATSBY. ELLA KAYE HIS WIFE NEVER TOOK CARE OF HIM AND HE DIED SUDDENLY BECAUSE OF HIS DRINKING HABBITS.

GATSBY WAS ACTUALLY JAMES GATZ, CODY’S SECERATERY INHERITED HIS WEALTH AND BECAME RICH. HE HAD ALSO INHERITED CODY’S DRINKING HABITS AND BECAME A DEBAUNCHED BY NATURE. HE INHERITED ABOUT TWENTY-FIVE THOSAND FROM DAN CODY AND THE REST OF HIS MILLIONS WENT TO HIS WIFE ELLA.
DAN CODY’S POTRAIT, A GREY FLOID MAN WITH A HARD EMPTY FACE WAS HUNG IN GATSBY’S ROOM

GATSBY TALKED TO NICK ABOUT HIS RELATIONSHIP WITH DAN CODY IN ORDER TO MAKE THE LATTER UNDERSTAND HOW HE BECAME RICH.

ENGLISH - ITS ORIGIN AND RELATION TO OTHER LANGUAGES


ENGLISH - ITS ORIGIN AND RELATION TO OTHER LANGUAGES


The history of English has been distinguished and divided into three different periods. The period from the arrival of the English in Britain down to about 1100 is usually called the Old English (O.E.) or Anglo-Saxon period. Following the earliest age, the period from 1100 to 1500 is called the Middle English (M.E.). From 1500 to the present day is finally called the Modern English. Although migration of the English people from the continent of Europe had started during the fifth and sixth centuries, very few records of English writing is available before 700. After about the year 700 there is an unbroken sequence of documents in English which speaks the nature of the language.
A convenient division of the history of English can be made by starting from 700 and ending at 1900. This division gives the following three periods of 400 years each:
O.E. - 700 - 1100
M.E. - 1100 - 1500
N.E. or Mod. E. - 1500 - 1900
The most outstanding literary work of the O.E. period is the epic poem "Beowulf", written about 700. The most significant work of the M.E. period is the poetry of Chaucer (died 1400) and, the remarkable works of Spenser and Shakespeare is followed by a continuous series of great writers till date. (Mod. E.)
Due to the gradual and imperceptible evolution of the language, a distinct line between any two ages can not be drawn. There must have been considerable overlapping between old and new, the older generation, more conservative, retaining the older forms of speech, the younger, more revolutionary adopting innovations. The changes in the language were not abrupt and sudden, rather they were gradual and imperceptible and not brought about deliberately by the speaker.
English is not the original language of England but, like the English people themselves, came over from the continent of Europe. But before the arrival of English people and their language, there had existed for several centuries a tongue belonging to a quite different family of languages, the Celtic group. This was spoken by the ancient Britons. During the Roman occupation of Britain (43-410), Latin must also have been widely used and both these earlier languages must have left their imprint on Old English. The history of the English language in England began during the middle of the fifth century when the invading Teutonic tribes from the continent began to conquer the Britons and imposed on the country their own speech and social organization.
These continental tribes came from different parts of Northern Europe. Their exact origin is yet to be located. The historians agree on at least two branches - the Angles and the Saxons - that they came from a region around what is now Northern Germany. But there was a third tribe, whose original home is less certain. These were the Jutes, who, according to the traditional view, migrated from Jutland. Most modern historians do not accept this explanation which is based merely on the resemblance of the two names - Jutes and Jutland. The Angles settled mainly in the north and central portions of England and gave their name both to the country and its language, the Saxons settled mainly in the south, the Jutes in Kent, the south-eastern corner of England, and in the Isle of Wight. Mingled with these three main races there may well have been representatives of several other tribes, such as the Frisians, who inhabited what is now part of Holland, and even possibly the Franks. Because of this mixed strain in the
English people the term Anglo-Saxon is not quite accurate. To make alignment with Middle English and Modern English it is more appropriate to employ Old English for this early stage of English language. This also has the advantage of being parallel to the terminology applied to other language, e.g. - Old English, Middle English and Modern English is parallel to Old French, Middle French and Modern French. It also suggests the continuity of the English language from its earliest stages. The Old English writers themselves used the term 'englisc' or 'englisc-gereord' - "the English language". The use of "Anglo-Saxon" to indicate the English people and their language prior to the Norman conquest arose at a relatively late period, in the 16th century.
One of the striking and far-reaching discoveries of the 19th century was that many languages show important resemblances in their structure, and that these features are to be explained, not by a process of borrowing but by descent from a common ancestor. Languages are like plants or animals, which may differ considerably today but may still exhibit certain characteristics pointing to a common origin or parent stock. By grouping together those similar characteristics various genera, families and classes can be drawn. Languages, too, may be divided into families. To indicate a common descent for a group of languages or a group of words, the term 'cognate' is used. Some idea of the evidence on which these relationships are based may be obtained from the following facts. The following common terms in some European languages show many striking resemblances and the possibility of their descent from a common ancestor cannot be ruled out.
English
German
Dutch
Swedish
Danish
one
ein
een
en
een
two
zwei
(German z=ts)
twee
tva
to
three
drei
drie
tre
tre
four
vier
(German v=f)
vier
fyra
fire
father
vater (v=f)
vader
fader
fader
mother
mutter
moeder
moder
moder
brother
bruder
broeder
broder
broder
sister
schwester
zuster
syster
soster


The following verbs show remarkable similarities-
English German Dutch Swedish Danish
Infinitive sing singen zingen sjunga synge
Past tense sang sang zong sjong sang
Past participle sung gesungen gezongen sjungit sungen
(O.E.gesungen)
fish fischen visschen fiska fiske
fished fischte vischte fiskade fiskede
(ed-pron.t)
fished gefischt gevischt fiskat fisket
These and other similarities of an equally fundamental nature point to a common ancestory for this group of languages. They are called the Teutonic or Germanic group and are usually divided into three sub-groups, North Teutonic, East Teutonic and West
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Teutonic. All these are descended from one parent language, which is called primitive Teutonic. The relationship can best be shown by the following table, which includes only the more important languages.


PRIMITIVE TEUTONIC
____________________________________________________
E. TEUTONIC W. TEUTONIC N. TEUTONIC
_____________________ ___________________
Gothic English German Dutch Swedish Danish Norwegian
(no longer spoken)
Even if we compare this Teutonic group with non-Teutonic languages, we discover equally remarkable resemblances. If we compare English (Teutonic group) words with their forms in Latin or Greek, which belong to two different branches, the Italic and the Hellenic respectively, we find a close proximity. We might also include French, which is a modern development from Latin, just as Modern English is from Old English.
English Latin French Greek
one unus un cf. oinos
one(on dice)
two duo deux duo
three tres trois treis
father pater pere pater
mother mater mere meter
brother frater frere phrater
These resemblances are too great to be merely accidental. A similar comparison with other languages, such as the Celtic group, would reveal more common features. Based on these evidences we can draw a more complete table to show the relationship between these larger linguistic units, the Teutonic, Italic, Hellenic, Celtic and other groups. There are altogether nine of these (or eleven including the recent discourses) and they include most of the European and some of the Indian languages. Hence, they are often called the Indo-European family of languages. Another term is the Aryan family. Aryan is thus not a racial but a linguistic label. The Indo-European or Aryan language family does not consist of a single racial unit, rather, it has always included many varied stocks. It is difficult to say when and where the parent language was originally spoken, except that it was sometime before 2000 BC; possibly 3000 or 4000 BC. Scholars thought that the original home of this ancestral language was in Asia, but the modern view is that it was in Northern or Central Europe.
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INDO-EUROPEAN OR ARYAN
___________________________________________________________________
Teutonic Italic Hellenic Celtic Slovanic Indian
____________ Latin Classical Greek
E.Teut. W.Teut. N.Teut. Russian, etc.
Gothic ________________
___________ Mod. Greek
English German Dutch _____________ Sanskrit Pali
Gaelic Welsh Irish Hindi, etc.
Norwegian Swedish Italian
______________
French Spanish Italian
[The above diagram shows the relationship of English to the other languages. Only the more important languages and groups have been included - the table is considerably reduced and simplified; only six of the nine (or eleven) branches are shown.]
It is explicit from this genealogical table that the nearest relatives to English are German and Dutch, the Scandinavian languages are closer too. Rather more distant are Greek and Latin (modern descendants French, Spanish and Italian), Celtic languages (including the ancient Britons) and modern Celtic forms of speech (Gaelic spoken in the Highlands of Scotland and in parts of Canada, especially Nova Scotia, the recently revived Irish language of Eire, and the Cymric of Wales).
There are many other groups of languages outside the Indo-European family. The Semitic group which includes Hebrew and Arabic, and another group including Chinese, and several besides these. Although they have gained a dominating position because of the political power and prestige of the nations that use them, Indo-European languages thus constitute only a fraction of the world's total linguistic resources.
Owing to the complexity of grouping the languages (derived from a common ancestor) and due to the non-availability of early documents, we cannot reach near the stage at which language actually originated. Though we may succeed in tracing languages back to the Indo-European parent-tongue and in reconstructing this primitive form of speech. Primitive Indo-European was a highly developed and complex instrument, for before its appearance man or sub man must have been articulate. The
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development of speech is perhaps the most important advance in the history of mankind. There has been much speculation about the evolution of this means of communication. It is a mystery as we have very little evidence to guide us. Several theories have been forwarded from time to time by different scholars. They are as following:
1. Bow-Wow theory: supposes that words were first made from noises associated with natural objects. e.g.- the bark of a dog and the noise of the wind, actually became the names of the dog and the wind.
2. Ding-Dong thoery: man reacted to the presence of various external phenomena by making specific noises. e.g.- a bell making "ding-dong".
3. Pooh-Pooh theory: words are originally spontaneous exclamations like our modern oh! ouch!, etc.
4. Hey Nanny Nanny theory: language originated in the emotional, song-like outpourings of primitive man, which were gradually canalized into speech. (Jesperson)
According to Paget, speech started not as sound but as gestures made by the hands. Later on, in the course of evolution, when man had to work continuously with his hands that they could no longer be used for gesticulating, he carried out the same movement with his tongue inside his mouth. This series of tongue position, acting on the exhaled and inhaled air, would naturally give rise to some definite sounds and would replace the gestures to convey the same meaning.
It is evident from all these explanations that the origin of speech sound is highly speculative. Language might have been originated due to some of these processes, and perhaps others that have not yet been discovered or at least considered.

Summary of Shelly's ODE TO THE WEST WIND


Summary of Shelly's ODE TO THE WEST WIND

SUMMARY OF THE POEM




ODE IS A RHYMED LYRIC, IT IS AN ELABORATELY STRUCTURED POEM WHICH IS OFTEN IN THE FORM OF AN ADDRESS.

THE POEM IS A REGULAR ODE.

IT IS DIVIDED INTO FIVE STANZAS. EACH STANZA IS OF FOURTEEN LINES.

ALL STANZAS HAVE SAME RHYME SCHEME., INTER RHYMING GROUPS OF THREE LINES, THE LAST TWO LINES OF EACH STANZA BEING A COUPLET.



THE WILD WEST WIND HAS BEEN ADDRESSED AS THE BREATH OF AUTUMN’S VERY EXISTENCE. THE WIND CANNOT BE SEEN BUT ONLY FELT, IT BLOWS THE DEAD LEAVES, THE LEAVES ARE DRIVEN THE WAY GHOSTS FLEE FROM A MAGICIAN.

THE WEST WIND CARRIES, LIFTS THE SEEDS AND SCATTERS THEM ALL OVER, AND BURIES THEM IN EARTH TILL THE SPRING WHEN EAST WIND BLOWS. THESE SEEDS THEN SPROUT, GROW AND BEAR FLOWERS AND FILL THE PLAINS AND HILLS WITH DIFFERENT COLOURS AND SWEET FRAGRANCE.

THE WEST WIND IS REFERRED AS A WILD SPIRIT AND IS ALSO CALLED DESTROYED (OF DRIED, DISEASED AND WITHERED LEAVES) AND A PRESERVER (OF SEEDS—DEPICTING LIFE)

THE POET DESCRIBES THE APPROACHING STORM AND IT’S ELEMENTS THAT WEST WIND WILL BRING. THERE’S DISTURBANCE IN THE SKY, THE WEST WIND CARRIES THE LOOSE CLOUDS, WHICH LIKE EARTH’S DECAYING LEAVES, ARE SHED AND SHOOK FROM THE ENTANGLED BRANCES OF A TREE WHOSE ROOTS ARE IN THE OCEAN (CLOUDS ARE FORMED DUE TO EVAPORATION OF WATER) AND BRANCHES IN THE SKY.

THE CLOUDS FLOATING ON THE SURFACE OF THE WEST WIND HAVE BEEN DEPITED AS MESSENGERS OF RAIN AND LIGHTNING AND AS THE LOCKS OF THE APPROCHING STORM. THE WEST WIND HAS BEEN DESCRIBED AS A FUNERAL SONG OF THE DYING YEAR. THE POET INVOKES THE WEST TO LISTEN TO HIM. THE WEST WIND CAUSES RAIN, FIRE, THUNDER (LIGHTNING) AND HAIL.

THE WEST WIND AWAKENS THE BLUE MEDITERRANEAN FROM HIS SLUMBER. HE WAS SENT TO SLEEP, MADE CALM AND QUIT BY HIS CRYSTALLINE STREAMS BUT HAS BEEN SHAKEN FROM HIS SLEEP FULL OF DREAMS OF OLD PALACES AND TOWERS BY THE SWIFT WIND.

THE WEST WIND BLOWS OVER THE ATLANTIC, AT A HIGH SPEED AND FURY THE HIGH RISING WAVES SPLIT INTO DEEP CLEFT, GIVE WAY TO THE MIGHTY WEST WIND. THE SEA BLOOMS AND THE MOIST WOODS ALSO KNOW THE VOICE OF THE WEST WIND AND TREMBLE WITH FEAR AND ARE UPROOTED.

THE POET RECALLS, HE WAS ONCE LIKE THE WEST WIND TAMELESS, SWIFT AND PROUD. HE WAS AS ENERGETIC AND UNCONTROLLABLE AS THE WEST WIND BUT DONE TO UNFAVOURABLE CIRCUMSTANCES HE HAS BEEN CHAINED AND CRUSHED, IS NO LONGER FREE AND PROUD. LIFE HAS BEEN FULL OF ADVERSITIES, HENCE HE BLEEDS.HE IMPLORES THE WEST WIND TO LIFT HIM AS A WAVE, A LEAF OR A CLOUD AS HE WANTS TO ACCOMPANY IT, WANTS TO BE IT’S COMPANION AND WANDER OVER HEAVEN. HE WANTS TO BE FREE OF LIFES’S BURDENS.

THE POETS APPEALS THE WEST WIND TO TREAT HIM AS LYRE AND BLOW (AND PRODUCE MUSIC) ON HIM AS IT BLOWS THROUGH THE FOREST. THE POET COMPARES HIMSELF TO THE FOREST AS HE PADDING TROUGHT THE AUTUMN OF HIS LIFE. HE PLEADS THE WEST WIND TO DRIVE AWAY AND SCATTER HIS DEAD THOUGHTS LIKES WITHERED LEAVES AND SET IN A NEW BEGINNING.

HE PLEADS THE WEST WIND TO SCATTER HIS WORDS THAT FORETELL THAT THE GOLDEN PREIOD OF MANKIND WILL SOONBEGIN, ‘IF WINTER COMES CAN SPRING BE FOR BEHIND’. IF ADVERSITIES COMES GOOD TIMES CANNOT BE FAR BEHIND. THERE IS ALWAYS HOPE.
SUMMARY OF THE POEM




ODE IS A RHYMED LYRIC, IT IS AN ELABORATELY STRUCTURED POEM WHICH IS OFTEN IN THE FORM OF AN ADDRESS.

THE POEM IS A REGULAR ODE.

IT IS DIVIDED INTO FIVE STANZAS. EACH STANZA IS OF FOURTEEN LINES.

ALL STANZAS HAVE SAME RHYME SCHEME., INTER RHYMING GROUPS OF THREE LINES, THE LAST TWO LINES OF EACH STANZA BEING A COUPLET.



THE WILD WEST WIND HAS BEEN ADDRESSED AS THE BREATH OF AUTUMN’S VERY EXISTENCE. THE WIND CANNOT BE SEEN BUT ONLY FELT, IT BLOWS THE DEAD LEAVES, THE LEAVES ARE DRIVEN THE WAY GHOSTS FLEE FROM A MAGICIAN.

THE WEST WIND CARRIES, LIFTS THE SEEDS AND SCATTERS THEM ALL OVER, AND BURIES THEM IN EARTH TILL THE SPRING WHEN EAST WIND BLOWS. THESE SEEDS THEN SPROUT, GROW AND BEAR FLOWERS AND FILL THE PLAINS AND HILLS WITH DIFFERENT COLOURS AND SWEET FRAGRANCE.

THE WEST WIND IS REFERRED AS A WILD SPIRIT AND IS ALSO CALLED DESTROYED (OF DRIED, DISEASED AND WITHERED LEAVES) AND A PRESERVER (OF SEEDS—DEPICTING LIFE)

THE POET DESCRIBES THE APPROACHING STORM AND IT’S ELEMENTS THAT WEST WIND WILL BRING. THERE’S DISTURBANCE IN THE SKY, THE WEST WIND CARRIES THE LOOSE CLOUDS, WHICH LIKE EARTH’S DECAYING LEAVES, ARE SHED AND SHOOK FROM THE ENTANGLED BRANCES OF A TREE WHOSE ROOTS ARE IN THE OCEAN (CLOUDS ARE FORMED DUE TO EVAPORATION OF WATER) AND BRANCHES IN THE SKY.

THE CLOUDS FLOATING ON THE SURFACE OF THE WEST WIND HAVE BEEN DEPITED AS MESSENGERS OF RAIN AND LIGHTNING AND AS THE LOCKS OF THE APPROCHING STORM. THE WEST WIND HAS BEEN DESCRIBED AS A FUNERAL SONG OF THE DYING YEAR. THE POET INVOKES THE WEST TO LISTEN TO HIM. THE WEST WIND CAUSES RAIN, FIRE, THUNDER (LIGHTNING) AND HAIL.

THE WEST WIND AWAKENS THE BLUE MEDITERRANEAN FROM HIS SLUMBER. HE WAS SENT TO SLEEP, MADE CALM AND QUIT BY HIS CRYSTALLINE STREAMS BUT HAS BEEN SHAKEN FROM HIS SLEEP FULL OF DREAMS OF OLD PALACES AND TOWERS BY THE SWIFT WIND.

THE WEST WIND BLOWS OVER THE ATLANTIC, AT A HIGH SPEED AND FURY THE HIGH RISING WAVES SPLIT INTO DEEP CLEFT, GIVE WAY TO THE MIGHTY WEST WIND. THE SEA BLOOMS AND THE MOIST WOODS ALSO KNOW THE VOICE OF THE WEST WIND AND TREMBLE WITH FEAR AND ARE UPROOTED.

THE POET RECALLS, HE WAS ONCE LIKE THE WEST WIND TAMELESS, SWIFT AND PROUD. HE WAS AS ENERGETIC AND UNCONTROLLABLE AS THE WEST WIND BUT DONE TO UNFAVOURABLE CIRCUMSTANCES HE HAS BEEN CHAINED AND CRUSHED, IS NO LONGER FREE AND PROUD. LIFE HAS BEEN FULL OF ADVERSITIES, HENCE HE BLEEDS.HE IMPLORES THE WEST WIND TO LIFT HIM AS A WAVE, A LEAF OR A CLOUD AS HE WANTS TO ACCOMPANY IT, WANTS TO BE IT’S COMPANION AND WANDER OVER HEAVEN. HE WANTS TO BE FREE OF LIFES’S BURDENS.

THE POETS APPEALS THE WEST WIND TO TREAT HIM AS LYRE AND BLOW (AND PRODUCE MUSIC) ON HIM AS IT BLOWS THROUGH THE FOREST. THE POET COMPARES HIMSELF TO THE FOREST AS HE PADDING TROUGHT THE AUTUMN OF HIS LIFE. HE PLEADS THE WEST WIND TO DRIVE AWAY AND SCATTER HIS DEAD THOUGHTS LIKES WITHERED LEAVES AND SET IN A NEW BEGINNING.

HE PLEADS THE WEST WIND TO SCATTER HIS WORDS THAT FORETELL THAT THE GOLDEN PREIOD OF MANKIND WILL SOONBEGIN, ‘IF WINTER COMES CAN SPRING BE FOR BEHIND’. IF ADVERSITIES COMES GOOD TIMES CANNOT BE FAR BEHIND. THERE IS ALWAYS HOPE.

Questions On Shelly’s “Ode To The West Wind”


Questions On Shelly’s “Ode To The West Wind”



READ THE GIVEN EXTRACTS AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS THAT FALLOW :




1. O WILD WEST WIND, THOU BREATH OF AUTUMN’S BEING,
THOU, FROM WHOSE UNSEEN PRESENCE HE LEAVES DEAD
ARE DRIVEN, LIKE GHOSTS FROM AN ENCHANTER FLEEING.


(a.) WHICH SEASON OF THE YEAR IS PRESENTED IN THE POEM
(b.) WHICH POETIC DEVICE HAS THE POET USED IN THE LAST LINE? IDENTIFY.
(c.) WHY ARE THE LEAVES REFFED AS DEAD?
(d.) GIVE TWO WORDS FROM THE ABOVE LINES WHICH TELL US ABOUT WIND.


2. YELLOW, AND BLACK, AND PALE, AND HECTIC RED,
PESTILENCE-STRICKEN MULTITUDES: O THOU,
WHO CHARIOTEST TO THEIR DARK WINTRY BED
THE WINGED SEEDS, WHERE THEY LIE COLD AND LOW,
EACH LIKE A CORPSE WITHIN IT’S GRAVE,UNTILL
THINE AZURE SISTER OF THE SPRING SHALL BLOW



(a.) WHAT DO THE GIVEN COLOURS DESCRIBE?
(b.) ‘PESTILENCE-STRICKEN MULTITUDE’ MEANS?
(c.) WHERE DO THE WINGED SEEDS LIE? HOW DO THEY REACH THERE ?
(d.) CHOOSE AN EXAMPLE OF A SIMILE IN THE ABOVE LINES.
3. HER CLARION O’ER THE DREAMING EARTH, AND FILL
(DRIVING SWEET BUDS LIKE FLOCKS TO FEED IN AIR)
WITH LIVING HUES AND ODOURS PLAINS AND HILL :
WILD SPIRIT, WHICH ART MOVING EVERYWHERE;
DESTROYER AND PRESERVER;HEAR,OH,HEAR!

(a.) WHAT WILL HAPPEN TO THE DORMANT SEEDS ONCE THE EAST WIND SISTER OF THE WEST WIND BLOWS HER CLARION?
(b.) IDENTIFY ANY TWO FIGURES OF SPEECH IN THE ABOVE LINES.
(c.) WHY DOES THE POEAT CALL THE WEST WIND AS A DESTROYER AND PRESERVER?



4. THOU ON WHOSE STREAM, ‘MID THE STEEP SKY’S COMMOTION,
LOOSE CLOUDS LIKE EARTH’S DECAYING LEAVES ARE SHED,
SHOOK FROM THE TANGLED BOUGHS OF HEAVEN AND OCEAN,
ANGLES OF RAIN AND LIGHTNING :THERE ARE SPREAD
ON THE BLUE SURFACE OF THINE AERY SURGE,
LIKE THE BRIGHT HAIR UPLIFTED FROM THE HEAD


(a.) SKY’S COMMOTION REFERS TO WHAT?
(b.) PICK OUT TWO EXAMPLES OF SIMILES.
(c.) INDENTIFY ANOTHER POETIC DEVICE USED IN THE ABOUVE LINES.
(d.) NAME THE POET OF THE ABOVE POEM?


5. OF SOME FIERCE MAENAD, EVEN FROM THE DIM VERGE
OF THE HORIGON TO THE ZENITH’S HEIGHT,
THE LOCKS OF THE APPROACHING STORM. THOU DIRGE


(a.) WHAT WILL HAPPEN AS ALL THE CLOUDS ARE GATHERED BY THE WIND?
(b.) WHAT DOES WEST WIND SYMBOLISE IN THE ABOVE LINES
(c.) IN WHAT CONTEXT HAS MAENAD BEEN REFERRED TO?


6. OF THE DYING YEAR, TO WHICH THIS CLOSING NIGHT
WILL BE THE DOME OF A VAST SEPULCHRE
VAULTED WITH ALL THY CONGREGATED MIGHT
OF VAPORS, FROM WHOSE SOLID ATMOSPHERE
BLACK RAIN, AND FIRE, AND HAIL WILL BURST :OH, HEAR


(a.) EXPLAIN THE MEANING OF ‘VAST SEPULCHRE’.
(b.) ‘THOU DIRGE OF THE DYING YEAR’ EXPLAIN THE MEANING.
(c.) WHAT DOES THE LAST LINE SINGNIFY?



7. THOU WHO DIDST WAKEN FROM HIS SUMMER DREAMS
THE BLUE MEDITERRANEAN, WHERE HE LAY,
LULL’D BY THE COIL OF HIS CRYSTALLINE STREAMS,
BESIDE A PUMICE ISLE IN BAIAE’S BAY ,
ANS SAW IN SLEEP OLD PALACES AND TOWERS
QUIVERING WITH IN THE WAVE’S INTENSER DAY,


(a.) PERSONIFICATION MEANS TO ATTRIBUTE HUMAN QUALITIES TO INANIMATE OBJETS. CHOOSE AN EXAMPLE OF THE GIVEN POETIC DEVICE.
(b.) HOW HAS THE MEDITERRANEAN BEEN WAKENED?
(c.) WHAT DOES THE MEDITERRANEAN SEE IN HIS DREAMS?
(d.) EXPLAIN THE LAST LINE.

8. ALL OVERGROWN WITH AZURE MOSS AND FLOWERS
SO SWEET, THE FAINTS PITURING THEM ! THOU
FOR THOSE PATH THE ATLANTIC’S LEVEL POWERS


(a.) WHAT IS OVERGROWN WITH AZURE MOSS AND FLOWERS?
(b.) WHY DOES THE POET SAY THE, ‘FAINTS PITURING THEM’?
(c.) WHOSE PATH IS REFERRED TO?
(d.) WHAT IS ITS EFFECT ON THE SEA BLOOMS AND OOZY WOODS?


9. CLEAVE TEMSELVES IN TO CHASMS, WILE FAR BELOW.
THE SEA-BLOOMS AND OOZY WOODS WICH WEAR
THE SAPLESS FOLIAGE OF THE OCEAN, KNOW
THE VOICE, AND SUDDENLYGROW GRAY WITH FEAR,
AND TREMBLE AND DESPOILTHEMSELVES; OH, HEAR!

(a.) WHO CLEAVE INTO CHARM AND WHY?
(b.) WHY DO THE SEA BLOOM OF THE OCEAN SUDDENLY GROW GRAY ? WHAT IS THE EFFECT?
(c.) DESCRIBE THE ACTION OF WEST WIND ON WATER.

10. IF I WERE A DEAD LEAF THOU MIGHTEST BEAR;
IF I WERE A SWIFT CLOUD TO FLY WITH THEE;
A WAVE TO PANT BENEATH THY POWE, AND SHARE

(a.) WHAT DOES THE POET DESIRE TO BE?
(b.) ACCORDING TO THE POEST WHAT ARE THE SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE WEST WIND?
(c.) JUSTIFY THE TITLE OF THE POEM.







11. THE IMPULSE OF THY STRENGHT, ONLY LESS FREE
THAN THOU, O UNCONTROLLABLE !IF EVEN
I WERE AS IN MY BOYHOOD, AND COULD BE
THE COMRADE OF THY WANDERINGS OVER HEAVEN,
AS THEN, WHEN TO OUTSTRIP THY SKIEY SPEED
SCARCE SEEM’D A VISION; I WOULD NE’ER HAVE
STRIVEN ‘ONLY LESS FREE’

(a.) WHY DOES THE POET SAY,’ONLY LESS FREE’? WHO IS TALKING ABOUT?
(b.) HOW WAS THE POET IN HIS BOYHOOD?
(c.) WHAT DOES THE POET WANT TO BE?
(d.) WHAT DOES ‘AS THEN’ REFER TO?


12. AS THUS WITH THEE IN PRAYER IN MY SORE NEED.
OH, LIFT ME AS A WAVE, A LEAF, A CLOUD!
I FALL UPON THE THORNS OF LIFE ! I BLEED !
A HEAVY WEIGHT OF HOURS HAS CHAINED AND
BOWED
ONE TOO LIKE THEE- TAMELESS, AND SWIFT, AND
PROUD.

(a.) THE POET WISHES TO BE FREE OF LIFE’S BURDEN. IDENTIFY THE PHRASE THAT EXPRESSES HIS DESIRE TO ESCAPE-“THE THORNS OF LIFE’.
(b.) WHY DOES THE POET SAY HE USED TO HAVE STREANGTH LIKE THE WEST WIND HAS ? NOW HOWDOES HE DESCRIBE HIMSELF?
(c.) WHICH POETIC DEVICE IS USED IN THE ABOVE STANZA ? IDENTIFY IT.

13. MAKE ME THE LYRE, EVEN AS THE FOREST IS :
WHAT IF MY LEAVES ARE FALLING IT’S OWN ?
THE TUMULT OF THY MIGHTY HARMONIES


(a.) WHICH WORD IN THE ABOVE LINE MEANS A MUSICAL INSTRUMENT?
(b.) HOW DOES THE POET COMPARE HIMSELF TO THE FOREST?
(c.) EXPLAIN THE LAST LINE?


14. WILL TAKE FROM BOTH A DEEP, AUTUMNAL TONE,
SWEET THOUGH IN SADNESS. BE THOU, SPIRIT FOERCE,
MY SPIRIT ! BE THOU ME, IMTETUOUS ONE !

(a.) WHY DOES THE POET, CALL THE WIND IMPETOUS?
(b.) HOW WILL THE DEEP AUTUMNAL TOME BE PRODUCED AND WHY?
(c.) WHY DOES THE POET SAY, ‘IN SADNESS’?



15. DRIVE MY DEAD THOUGHTS OVER THE UNIVERSE
LIKE WITHERED LEAVES TO QUICKEN A NEW BIRTH !
AND, BY THE INCANTATION OF THIS VERSE,


(a.) WHICH LITERARY DEVICE IS USED IN THE ABOVE LINES?
(b.) WHY DOES THE POET WANT HIS DEAD THOUGHTS TO BE SCATTERED?
(c.) EXPLAIN THE LAST LINE.


16. SCATTER, AS FROM AN UNEXTINGUISHED HEARTH
ASHES AND SPARKS, MY WORD’S AMONG MANKIND !BE THOUGH MY LIPS TO UNAWAKEN’D EARTH
THE TRUMPET OF A PROPHECY !O WIND,
IF WINTER COMES, CAN SPRING BE FAR BEHIND?


(a.) WHAT DOES THE POET WANT TO SCATTERED ? WHAT DOES HE COMPARE IT TO?
(b.) WAT DO SPRING AND WINTER STAND FOR?
(c.) WHO WILL BLOW THE TRUMPET OF PROPHECY?
(d.) WHICH TRAITS OF THE POET ARE EXPRESSED IN THE ABOVE LINES ?







17. IN THE POEM ‘ODE TO THE WEST WIND’ WHAT ACTIVITIES OF THE WEST WIND HAVE BEEN DESCRIBED? WHY IS IT CALLED ‘WIND SPIRIT’?



18. WHAT DES WEST WIND SYMBOLISE?
DESCRIBE THE ACTION OF THE WEST WIND ON WATER.



19. WHAT APPEALDOES THE POET MAKE TO THE WEST WIND? EXPLAIN THE LAST LINE OF THE POEM



20. EXPLAIN THE TITLE OF THE POEM ‘ODE TO THE WEST WIND’. WITH WHOM DOES THE POET IDENTIFY HIS OWN PERSONALITY AND WHY?

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